Definition of Invective

Invective is insulting or abusive language used to express blame or severe disapproval. Invective often occurs due to deeply seated ill will, and can also be called vituperation or vitriol. Invective can take the form of a single word or expression, or be an entire aimed at offending or hurting someone else.

The word invective comes from the Latin invectiva, which meant “abusive or censorious language.” Thus, the definition of invective has stayed constant for many hundreds of years.

Common Examples of Invective

We are all familiar with invective, whether we are the victim or perpetrator of insults. There are many quotes from famous people which are invective examples, such as the following:

There are also plenty of invective examples from movies:

At times invective can also be used in humorous ways, like in the proliferation of “Yo Mama” jokes:

Significance of Invective in Literature

Historically, invective was important in the polemical works of Roman poets and ancient Greek writers, and was itself a of writing used to attack public figures, especially politicians. Invective was also important in Renaissance England, during which it was called libel. Nowadays, invective is still common in the public sphere, especially when it’s used as political in order to point out corruption and the ills of society.

Authors sometimes use invective in their works of literature for humorous purposes, as two characters who are engaged in name-calling can be quite funny. However, in some cases invective can also be shocking and results in and plot development. The use of invective from characters can also change the readers’ perception of that character, often making them seen either more human because they have strong emotions or, sometimes, more dislikable.

Examples of Invective in Literature

Example #1

OEDIPUS: Sirrah, what mak’st thou here? Dost thou presume
To approach my doors, thou brazen-faced rogue,
My murderer and the filcher of my crown?
Come, answer this, didst thou detect in me
Some touch of cowardice or witlessness,
That made thee undertake this enterprise?
I seemed forsooth too simple to perceive
The serpent stealing on me in the dark,
Or else too weak to scotch it when I saw.
This thou art witless seeking to possess
Without a following or friends the crown,
A prize that followers and wealth must win.

(Oedipus the King by Sophocles)

Oedipus criticizes Creon, who he believes is conspiring against him to take the throne away from Oedipus. He uses invective examples, calling Creon a “brazen-faced rogue,” “murderer and filcher of my crown,” as well as “witless.” Oedipus’s turning on Creon ends up being part of Oedipus’s downfall.

Example #2

PRINCE HENRY: I’ll be no longer guilty of this sin. This sanguine coward, this bed-presser, this horseback-breaker, this huge hill of flesh—
FALSTAFF: ’Sblood, you starveling, you elfskin, you dried neat’s tongue, you bull’s pizzle, you stockfish! O, for breath to utter what is like thee! You tailor’s-yard, you sheath, you bowcase, you vile standing tuck—

(Henry IV, Part 1 by William Shakespeare)

William Shakespeare used many examples of invective in his plays, and is particularly noted for his amazing creativity when it came to insults. In just this short exchange between Prince Henry and Falstaff, there are over a dozen insults traded back and forth.

Example #3

“It does her good to get away.”
“Doesn’t her husband object?”
“Wilson? He thinks she goes to see her sister in New York. He’s so dumb he doesn’t know he’s alive.”

(The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald)

This exchange from F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby takes place between Tom Buchanan and the narrator Nick Carraway. Nick finds out that Tom has a mistress, who comes down to New York City to visit him. Nick questions whether the woman’s husband objects, but Tom has a choice example of invective for the husband, Wilson, saying “He’s so dumb he doesn’t know he’s alive.”

Example #4

“Why did you walk around with crab apples in your cheeks? Yossarian asked again. “That’s what I asked.”
“Because they’ve got a better shape than horse chestnuts,” Orr answered. “I just told you that.”
“Why,” swore Yossarian at him approvingly, “you evil-eyed, mechanically-aptituded, disaffiliated son of a bitch, did you walk around with anything in your cheeks?”
“I didn’t,” Orr said, “walk around with anything in my cheeks. I walked around with crab apples in my cheeks. When I couldn’t get crab apples, I walked around with horse chestnuts. In my cheeks.”

(Catch-22 by Joseph Heller)

There are plenty of absurd conversations and occurrences in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22, and the about crab apples is one of the most famous. The Yossarian is trying to make some sense out of Orr’s about keeping crab apples in his cheeks, but Orr refuses to make sense. In his frustration, Yossarian unleashes a torrent of invective, calling Orr an “evil-eyed, mechanically-aptituded, disaffiliated son of a bitch.”

Example #5

Mr. Moony presents his compliments to Professor Snape, and begs him to keep his abnormally large nose out of other people’s business.
Mr. Prongs agrees with Mr. Moony, and would like to add that Professor Snape is an ugly git.
Mr. Padfoot would like to register his astonishment that an idiot like that ever became a professor.
Mr. Wormtail bids Professor Snape good day, and advises him to wash his hair, the slimeball.

(Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by J. K. Rowling)

J. K. Rowling employs numerous invective examples in her Harry Potter series, specializing in and barbs traded between warring camps. In this example, the four characters of Moony, Prongs, Padfoot, and Wormtail (all examples standing in for their real names) criticize the character of Professor Snape harshly. They attack his appearance and aptitude for the role of professor.